Personen mit einer Fahrerlaubnis auf Probe waren am 1. Januar 2020 im Zentralen Fahrerlaubnisregister (ZFER) eingetragen. Das sind 0,2 Prozent mehr als im Vorjahr.
Here you will find questions of general interest on the themes
Here you can find questions often asked about Type-approvals
It is basic that the applicant decides on according to which rule he or she applies for.
National regulations are no longer to be used for technical facts that have been completely harmonized as European regulations.
The KBA works with the FEE Fahrzeugtechnik EWG/ECE published by the German “Kirschbaum Verlag”. The KBA does not know of any other commented versions.
KBA is the only type-approval authority in Germany. There are further type-approval authorities in states of the European Economic Area (EEA) and the user states of the ECE regulations.
The KBA is working on commented versions of the Straßenverkehrs-Zulassungs-Ordnung (StVZO - German law for authorization of vehicles for road traffic) and FEE Fahrzeugtechnik EWG/ECE edition published by the German “Kirschbaum Verlag” (only German). The KBA does not know of any other commented versions.
The type-approval holder must always manufacture in conformity with the type-approval. When changes are made to a product, he or she must apply to the KBA for an extension of the type-approval. He or she must also inform the KBA on planned changes in data which are the basis of the type-approval or in the data given in the application procedure.
The KBA randomly checks whether or how the duties are adhered to (conformity check).
National type-approvals that conform to §§ 20, 22 or 22a of the Straßenverkehrs-Zulassungs-Ordnung (StVZO – German law for authorization of vehicles for road traffic) are recognized in Germany. The type-approval holder must ask whether a particular state recognizes them.
Type-approvals that comply with international regulations are recognized in the European Economic Area (EEA) and the user states of the particular ECE regulations.
A type-approval always relates to the approval of a large number of products of the same type. Based on a type-approval the type approval holder can produce any number of identical products.
In contrast to this, individual approvals always relate to one concrete vehicle or component part.
A difference must be made between three types of rules. These are the national regulations (Straßenverkehrs-Zulassungs-Ordnung (StVZO – German law for authorization of vehicles for road traffic) and Fahrzeugteileverordnung (FzTV - Vehicle parts regulation)), the regulations for the European Economic Area (EEA) (EC directives and EC/EU regulations) as well as the regulations of the UN-ECE (ECE regulations).
A distinction is made between three types of type-approvals. These are type-approvals for vehicles, systems and components (separate technical units).
These type-approvals are issued according to different rules.
Type-approvals for components can be issued according to national regulations (§§ 22 or 22a Straßenverkehrs-Zulassungs-Ordnung (StVZO – German law for authorization of vehicles for road traffic)), according to regulations for the European Economic Area (EEA) (EC directives and EC/EU regulations) as well as according to the regulations of the UN-ECE (ECE regulations).
Vehicle type-approvals can be issued according to national regulations (§ 20 Straßenverkehrs-Zulassungs-Ordnung (StVZO – German law for authorization of vehicles for road traffic)) or EC regulations (Directives 2002/24/EC, 2003/37/EC, 2007/46/EC or Regulations 167/2013 and 168/2013).
Type-approvals for systems can be issued according to regulations for the European Economic Area (EEA) (EC directives and EC/EU regulations) as well as according to the regulations of the UN-ECE (ECE regulations).
A system means an assembly of devices combined to perform one or more specific functions in a vehicle and which is subject to the requirements of an international regulation.
Examples of systems are the braking or steering system of a vehicle or the mounting of wheels and tyres.
Type-approvals can be issued to natural persons and legal entities.
The resultant requirements are given in the Information sheet on initial assessment.
Type-approvals are frequently prescribed by the legislator. In such cases, they make access to the market in Germany, the European Economic Area (EEA) and further states possible for the manufacturer.
Type-approvals can also be voluntarily strived for, they then make access to the market easier and improve marketing ability.
The sources of the various rules are shown as links in the fast access area on the KBA vehicle technology page.
With a type-approval the authority confirms that the approved product produced in series conforms to legal standards. Type-approvals stand for safe and environmentally friendly technology on the roads.
Here you can find questions often asked about Designation of technical services
An accreditation is not sufficient for designation as technical service by the KBA.
An accreditation can be taken into consideration by the KBA in a designation procedure when
On basis of such an accreditation, the KBA checks the
If requested, after appropriate checking of the delta, the designation can cover other revisions of relevant regulatory acts.
In general, designations of other type-approval authorities are not taken into consideration by the KBA.
A laboratory of a manufacturer can only be designated as a technical service when the relevant regulatory act explicitly allows this. Otherwise, the manufacturer’s laboratory should consider the option that a designated by the KBA technical service supervises the tests in the manufacturer’s laboratory and creates the test report.
Laboratories and certification bodies must have its commercial registration in the European Union. Subsidiaries in other countries can be included in the designation when certain preconditions are fulfilled.
You can find detailed information in the Designation section. Designation rules and application forms can be found in the download section. Please contact also our staff of the department in charge (email@example.com, +49 351 47385-0).
The section "Downloads" contains directories of all technical services that have been designated by the KBA with information on the scope of the designation, sorted from various points of view. After notification, the designated technical services are published also on the Internet pages of the EU and UNECE.
Test laboratories: "Type Approval procedure"
Certification bodies: "Initial assessment and Procedure for Verification of Conformity of Production"
The KBA supports the laboratory or certification body in the run-up to the application with consultations. No fee will be raised when such consultation is held at the KBA offices. There is also the possibility of making arrangements for a preliminary assessment.
Training sessions are held on basic knowledge of the designation procedure and for qualification of persons authorized to sign test reports and auditors. If you are interested, please send your request per e-mail to firstname.lastname@example.org.
The type-approval authority confirms by a designation that a technical service
The KBA designation procedure is based on the requirements of the EG-Fahrzeuggenehmigungsverordnung (EG-FGV) and corresponding UNECE requirements. The procedure is also used for the national regulatory acts. The “designation” term is synonymous with the “recognition” term, as is used in the EG-FGV.
In its type-approval procedure, the KBA uses only test reports from laboratories that have been designated as technical services by the KBA. Orders for checking whether a product is produced in conformity with the approved type are also given only to such laboratories.
When a certification body for quality management systems wants to be active in the type-approval procedure, it must also be designated as a technical service by the KBA.
The following conditions must be fulfilled for a certificate to be accepted in the KBA type-approval procedure:
The type-approval holder must inform the KBA when there has been a change in the legal entity, the name and/or the place of residence of the production plant, whether legally dependent or legally independent production plants.
The KBA must be timely informed on the threatened insolvency.
The KBA must be informed at the latest on the opening of the insolvency procedure. During the insolvency proceedings, the KBA further provides new type-approvals and extensions. The application for these must be made via the legally appointed insolvency administrator. The type-approval will be first sent to the type-approval holder after the receipt of the approval charges.
The existence of a type-approval is bound to the existence of a legal entity (type-approval holder). If the legal entity (type-approval holder) is no longer existent after the closing of the insolvency proceedings, the type-approval becomes invalid.
The KBA must be timely informed on such changes. The company must prove that the type-approval holder up to now has only be renamed or converted. The presentation of an actual official registration document (commercial register excerpt, for example) can confirm that the legal entity further exists.
The validity of a type-approval is bound to the existence of the legal entity (type-approval holder). It is fundamental, that type-approvals cannot be transferred. It is essential to inform the KBA early in such a case, so that it can be examined if there is a legal successor. The type-approval can only remain valid when the legal entity is maintained.
A type-approval holder himself or herself can manufacture in legally dependent and/or legally independent production plants. In the case of legally dependent production plants, the KBA must only be informed.
In the case of legally independent production plants, an original contract or one-sided declaration on the basis of the manufacturer’s capacity must be provided to the KBA (forms in the Information sheet on Initial assessment (MAB))
The approval-related requirements are given in the document “CoP information”. In the main, the following requirements are to be fulfilled:
From the extinction of the type-approval on, the storage time for the documents is to be the same as the anticipated life cycle of the product, but at least 3 years.
These storage times are only valid for the relationship between the type-approval holder and the KBA. They do not replace any legal requirements from other regulations nor stipulations of contracts (e.g. suppliers-OEM).
How a approval mark must look is determined by the selected rule. When there are uncertainties as to the appearance, the intended approval mark should be submitted together with the application documents.
A rapid issuing of a type-approval requires complete and fault-free documents. When this is the case, the KBA attempts to keep to times of 14 calendar days.
The cost is calculated according to the Gebührenordnung für Maßnahmen im Straßenverkehr (GebOSt – German scale of fees for road traffic measures). How much a single type-approval costs can be determined from the cost scale.
In national type-approvals for vehicle parts according to §§ 22 (Allgemeine Betriebserlaubnis (ABE)) or 22a (Allgemeine Bauartgenehmigung (ABG)) Straßenverkehrs-Zulassungs-Ordnung (StVZO – German law for authorization of vehicles for road traffic), he or she must provide the buyer with a print of the type-approval.
He or she must provide information on the installation conditions and the limitations of use of the vehicle parts in both national and international type-approvals.
When the KBA has knowledge of whether production is temporarily or permanently closed down, all participants save expenditure and costs (e.g. the taking of products for conformity testing).
The KBA must be informed immediately when the production is permanently closed down.
Test samples are only to be kept when they are for type-approval obligatory parts (refer to § 22a of the Straßenverkehrs-Zulassungs-Ordnung (StVZO – German law for authorization of vehicles for road traffic)).
When nothing else is determined in the type-approval, the storage time is 5 years from the extinction of the type-approval.
The certificate must
Further information is given in Information sheet on Initial assessment (MAB)
Type designation is a technical term of the type-approval regulations. Type defines a certain technical specification of a product to be approved well. How different the technical specification of a product within a type can be is regulated by the chosen rule. The limits of a type are regulated by the so-called type defining criteria.
There can be several versions within a type.
The applicant can determine the designations of the type and the versions.
Type designations used for sales purposes are frequently not sufficient for the requirements of the type from the rules and regulations of the type-approval procedure. It is therefore seldom appropriate to use sales designations as type designation.
The type-approval becomes invalid.
A transfer to an other company is possible under some conditions. It is essential to integrate the KBA early in such a case otherwise the type-approval will become invalid.
No. The documents only need to be again submitted when the actual contract or declaration do not list the new object to be approved.
Tip: To avoid the renewed making out of a contract or declaration, only give the type of equipment or vehicle class instead of a concrete type.
The contract or the declaration for the establishment of the manufacturer’s capacity must be filled in and signed and this original version must be submitted to the KBA.
The number of the type-approval can pre-approved.
Basic condition here is a completed initial assessment. An application is to be given for a type-approval which additionally applies the announcement of the type-approval number in advance.
The technical service must be designated by the KBA according to the relevant test procedure (the relative scope).
For information on which technical service can carry out the testing for national type-approval (Allgemeine Betriebserlaubnis (ABE), Allgemeine Bauartgenehmigung (ABG)) in individual cases, the Designation body of the KBA must be contacted.
A type-approval does not only provide rights but also duties. The legal identity is checked so that it is clear who is responsible for the compliance of duties. The QM process is evaluated so that an estimation can be made on whether the production is type-approval-conform and if appropriate reaction can be given in case of deviations.
Here you can find questions often asked about Conformity checks
An inspection can become necessary when
An inspection is regularly carried out when the KBA has no knowledge on whether a technical service designated by the KBA regularly checks fulfilment of the approval-relevant requirements.
CoP-Q inspections are spot checks. When no grave non-conform facts are determined, no further regular inspection is carried out.
Exceptions: see the following question
CoP-Q inspections are carried out:
The implemented QM-system and, in particular the measures and procedures that have been introduced, are checked in the framework of a CoP-Q inspection to determine if they are effective and further suitable to ensure the conformity of the products produced with the approved type. In addition, a check is made on whether other obligations of the type-approval holder against the KBA are attended to.
Here you can find questions often asked about General questions
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